Способы защиты лесных почв в ходе лесозаготовительных работ (обзор)

  • А. С. Ильинцев Северный научно-исследовательский институт лесного хозяйства https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3524-4665
  • Е. Н. Наквасина Северный (Арктический) федеральный университет им. М.В. Ломоносова
  • Lars Högbom Научно-исследовательский институт лесного хозяйства Швеции, Научный парк Уппсала; Шведский университет сельскохозяйственных наук https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6914-2897
Ключевые слова: лесные экосистемы, почва, антропогенная нагрузка, рубки леса, ле- созаготовительная техника, экологические последствия, восстановительная сукцессия, лучшие практики

Аннотация

Отношение общественности к вопросу экологичности лесозаготовительных методов и технологий заготовки древесины становится все более критичным. Анализ 105 публикаций, включенных в данный обзор, показывает, что подобные исследования вызывают интерес у ученых всего мира. За длительный период изучения обозначенной проблемы накопилось много работ о влиянии рубок леса на лесные почвы. Однако, как отмечают специалисты, эти знания еще не являются полными. На вырубках вследствие движения машин во время выполнения технологических операций появляются различные повреждения грунта. Изменения условий почвообразования в той или иной степени отражаются на всех свойствах почвы: физических, химических и биологических – а также на структуре почвенного покрова. Полностью исключить воздействие лесозаготовительной техники на лесные почвы невозможно, но свести к минимуму необходимо. Наиболее часто указываемые и эффективные технологические решения по ограничению негативных последствий прохода лесной техники это: проведение лесозаготовительных работ с учетом природных факторов; выбор системы заготовки древесины; планирование сезона лесозаготовок, методов лесосечных работ, технологической сети; оставление порубочных остатков на поверхности почвы; дополнительное обучение специалистов, работающих в лесу; подбор системы машин и механизмов; снижение количества проездов техники по технологическим волокам; использование шин большего размера и низкого давления, системы управления давлением в шинах; применение цепей противоскольжения, гусеничных лент; проведение мелиорации влажных участков; установка систем GPS и GIS в лесозаготовительной технике. Несмотря на активный интерес к щадящим методам заготовки древесины, меры, направленные на сохранение лесных почв после осуществления лесозаготовительных работ, приняты в недостаточном объеме. Причинами могут быть неполнота научно-технической информации и высокая стоимость внедрения передовой практики управления. Кроме того, экономические факторы и производственные планы требуют заготовки древесины в течение всего года и не принимают в расчет неблагоприятные погодные условия.
Для цитирования: Ilintsev A.S., Nakvasina E.N., Högbom L. Methods of Protection Forest Soils during Logging Operations (Review) // Изв. вузов. Лесн. журн. 2021. № 5. С. 92–116. DOI: 10.37482/0536-1036-2021-5-92-116
Финансирование: Работа выполнена при финансовой поддержке Министерства науки и высшего образования Российской Федерации в рамках проекта МК-2622.2021.5 «Закономерности изменения лесорастительной среды под влиянием антропогенных факторов (рубок леса) в бореальных лесах Севера». Часть исследования проведена в рамках государственного задания ФБУ «СевНИИЛХ» (№ 121020500252-6).

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Биографии авторов

А. С. Ильинцев, Северный научно-исследовательский институт лесного хозяйства

канд. с.-х. наук, ст. науч. сотр.; ResearcherID: N-6286-2019

Е. Н. Наквасина, Северный (Арктический) федеральный университет им. М.В. Ломоносова

д-р с.-х. наук, проф.; ResearcherID: A-5165-2013

Lars Högbom, Научно-исследовательский институт лесного хозяйства Швеции, Научный парк Уппсала; Шведский университет сельскохозяйственных наук

PhD, доц.;

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Опубликован
2021-10-26
Как цитировать
Ильинцев, А., Е. Наквасина, и L. Högbom. Способы защиты лесных почв в ходе лесозаготовительных работ (обзор). Лесной журнал, вып. 5, Oct. 2021, сс. 92-16, doi:10.37482/0536-1036-2021-5-92-116.
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ЛЕСОЭКСПЛУАТАЦИЯ